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• Making Molecules: Mass-to-Mass Conversions Respiration is a chemical reaction where glucose reacts molecular oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water: Let's approach the mass of C02 that pd produced by respiration of the glucose equivalent to the sugar in one chocolate bar, approximately The calculation is similar to the one done moelcular the previous section, but this time we are given the mass of fuel C6H 6 instead of the number of moles.

Consequently, we must first convert the mass in grams to the amount in moles. The general conceptual plan for calculations where you are Stoichiometry is pronounced I stoy-kee-om-e-tree. We use the molar mass of A to convert from the mass of A to the amount download A in moles. Then, we use the appropriate ratio from the balanced chemical equation to convert from the amount of A in moles to the amount of B in moles. Finally, we use the molar mass of B to convert from the amount of B in moles to the mass of B.

To calculate the mass of C0 2 produced from the respiration of Assuming that there is more than enough water present to react with all of the C02, what mass of glucose in grams can the plant synthesize from the C02? SORT The problem gives the mass of carbon dioxide and asks you to 3rd the mass of glucose that can be produced. From the chemical equation, d educe the relationship between moles of carbon dioxide and moles of glucose. Use the molar masses to convert between grams and moles.

GIVEN: Begin with g C0 2 and use the conversion factors to arrive at g C6 H 6. The magnitude of the answer This is reasonable because each carbon in C02 has two oxygen atoms associated with it, while in C6H 6each carbon has only one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms which are much lighter than molecularr associated with it. Therefore, the mass of glucose produced should be less than the mass of carbon dioxide for this reaction.

Assuming that there is adequate 0 2 and H2 0what mass of Editionin kg, can form from this amount of N0 2 pollutant? Which diagram best represents the amount of sodium required to completely react with all of the oxygen in the flask, downloav to the above equation? We will use the combustion of propane C3H 8the most common barbeque fuel, as our example.

What is the maximum amount of C02 that can be produced from the limiting reactant the theoretical yield? Kolecular we must calculate pdf number of Chemistry molecules that can be made from 2 molecules of C3H 8 :. The resulting solution will have a concentration of 3. The magnitude of free answer is reasonable because the solution is diluted from Therefore, the volume should increase by a factor of five.

Solution Stoichiometry In Section 4. In aqueous reactions, quantities of reactants and products are often specified in terms of volumes and concentrations.

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We can use the volume and concentration of a reactant or product to calculate its amount in moles. We can then use the stoichiometric coefficients in the chemical equation to convert to the amount of another reactant or product in moles. The general conceptual plan for these tree of calculations begins with the volume of a reactant or product: Volume A. Amount A in dowlnoad AmountB download moles VolumeB We make the conversions between solution volumes and amounts of solute in moles using the molarities of the solutions.

We downpoad the conversions between amounts in moles approavh A and B using the stoichiometric coefficients from the balanced feee equation. The following example demonstrates solution stoichiometry. Dodnload are asked to find the volume of KC! The molar concentrations of the KC! The stoichiometric coefficients from the balanced equation are used to convert between number of moles appgoach Pb N03h and number edittion moles of KC!. GIVEN: 0. Unon 1 L KCI solution 0.

The magnitude 0. Since the concentrations of the two solutions are not very chemustry 0. The substances on the left-hand side of a chemical equation are called edition 3rx, and the substances on the right-hand side are called the products. Chemical equations are balanced when the number of each type of atom on the left side of the equation is equal to the number on the right side. In oxidation-reduction reactions, one substance transfers electrons to another chemistry. The substance that loses electrons is oxidized, and the substance that gains them is reduced.

An oxidation state is a fictitious charge given to each atom in a redox reaction by assigning all shared electrons to the atom with the greater attraction free those electrons. Oxidation states are an imposed electronic bookkeeping scheme, not an actual physical state. Pdf oxidation state of an atom increases upon oxidation and decreases upon reduction.

A combustion reaction is a specific type of oxidation- reduction reaction in which a substance reacts with oxygen-emitting heat and forming one or more oxygen-containing products. Aqueous Solutions and Solubility 4. Solutes 3dd completely dissociate or completely ionize in the case of acids to ions in solution are strong electrolytes and are good conductors of electricity.

Solutes that only partially dissociate or partially chsmistry are weak electrolytes, and solutes that do not dissociate or ionize at all are nonelectrolytes. A substance that dissolves in water to form a solution is soluble. Approach solubility rules are an empirical set of guidelines that help predict the solubilities of ionic compounds; these rules are especially useful in Section 4. Reaction Stoichiometry chemisgry.

Reaction stoichiometry allows us to predict, for example, the amount of product that can be formed for a given amount of reactant, or how much of one reactant is required to react with a given amount of another. Aqueous reactions, downllad as precipitation reactions, can be represented with a molecular equation, which shows the complete neutral formula for each compound in the reaction.

Alternatively, a reaction can be represented with a complete ionic dowjload, which shows the di ssociated nature of the aqueous ionic compounds. Finally, a third representation is the net ionic equation, in which the spectator ions-those that do not change in the course of the reaction-are left out of the equation. When a chemical reaction actually occurs, the reactants are usually not present in the exact stoichiometric ratios specified by the balanced chemical equation.

The limiting reactant is the one that is available in the smallest stoichiometric quantity-it will be completely consumed in the reaction and it limits the amount of product that can be made. Any reactant that does not limit the amount of product is said to be in excess. The amount of product that can be made from the limiting reactant is the theoretical yield. The actual yield-always equal to or less than the theoretical editiion the amount of product that is actually made when the reaction is carried out.

The percentage of the theoretical yield that is actually produced is the percent yield. Acid-Base Reactions 4. In an acid-base reaction, 3re acid and base neutralize each other, producing water or in some cases, a weak electrolyte. In gas-evolution reactions, the acid and base combine in solution and a gas is download. Solution Concentration and Solution Stoichiometry 4. We can molecular the molarities and volumes of reactant solutions to predict the amount of product that will form in an aqueous reaction.

What is reaction stoichiometry? What is the significance of the coefficients in a balanced chemical equation? In a pd reaction, what is the limiting reactant? The theoretical 3rd The percent yield? What do we mean when we say a reactant is in excess? The percent yield is normally calculated using the actual yield and theoretical yield in edirion of mass g or kg.

Would the percent yield be different if the actual yield and theoretical yield were in units of amount moles? What is an aqueous solution? What is the difference between the solute and the solvent? What is molarity? How is it useful? Explain how a strong electrolyte, a weak electrolyte, and a nonelectrol yte differ. Explain the difference between a strong acid and a weak acid. What does it mean for a compound to be soluble? What are the solubility rules?

How are they useful? What cations and anions have compounds that are usually soluble? What are the exceptions? What anions have compounds that are mostly insoluble? What is a precipitation reaction? Give an example. How can you predict whether a precipitation reaction will occur upon mixing two aqueous solutions? Explain how a molecular equation, a complete ionic equation, and a net ionic equation differ. What are the Arrhenius definitions of an acid and a base? What is an acid-base reaction?

Why can you not change the subscripts on the chemical formulas in order to balance a chemical reaction? What is a gas-evolution reaction? What reactant types give rise to gas-evolution reactions? What is an oxidation-reduction reaction? What are oxidation states? How can oxidation states be used to identify redox reactions? Approach happens to a substance when it becomes oxidized? In a redox reaction, which reactant is the oxidizing agent? The reducing agent? What is a combustion reaction?

Why are they important? Pdf by Topic Chemistyr and Balancing Chemical Equations Q Sulfuric acid is a free of acid rain formed when gaseous sulfur dioxide pollutant reacts with gaseous oxygen and Liquid water to form aqueous sulfuric acid. Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction. Chemistrj acid is a component of acid rain that forms when gaseous nitrogen dioxide pollutant reacts with gaseous oxygen and fdee water to form aqueous nitric acid.

When iron rusts, solid chemistry reacts with gaseous oxygen to form solid iron III oxide. G Write a balanced chemical equation for the fermentation of sucrose C 12H 22 0 11 by yeasts in which the aqueous sugar reacts with water to form aqueous ethyl alcohol C2 H5 0H and carbon dioxide gas. Write a balanced dpwnload for the photosynthesis reaction in cgemistry gaseous carbon dioxide and liquid water react molecular the edition of chlorophyll to produce aqueous glucose C6 H 6 and oxygen gas.

Write a balanced chemical equation for each reaction: a. Solid lead Il sulfide reacts with aqueous hydrobromic 3rd to form solid lead Il bromide and dihydrogen monosulfide gas. Gaseous carbon monoxide reacts with hydrogen gas to form gaseous methane CH 4 and Liquid water. Aqueous hydrochloric acid reacts with solid manganese IV oxide to form edihion manganese Il chloride, liquid water, and chlorine gas.

Liquid pentane C5H 12 reacts with gaseous oxygen to form carbon dioxide and liquid water. Solid copper reacts with solid sulfur S 8 to form solid copper! Solid doownload Ill 3rs reacts with hydrogen gas to form solid iron and liquid water. Sulfur dioxide gas reacts with oxygen gas to form sulfur trioxide gas. Gaseous ammonia NH 3 reacts with gaseous oxygen to form gaseous nitrogen monoxide and gaseous water. Balance each chemical equation: a.

CsCl b. CH 30H c. Ca N02 z d. C6H 12 06 Classify each compound as a strong electrolyte or nonelectrolyte: a. MgBr2 b. C12H 11 c. Na2C03 d. KOH G Determine whether each compound is soluble downllad insoluble. If the compound is soluble, list the ions present in solution. AgN03 b. Pb C2H30 2h c. KN03 d. NH4 2S Determine whether each compound is soluble or insoluble.

For the soluble compounds, list the ions present in solution.

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AgI b. Cu3 P04 z c. CoC0 3 d. K3P04 show the reaction of aqueous Hg2 N0 3 z with aqueous sodium chloride to form solid Hg2Cl2 and aqueous sodium nitrate. Lead ions can be removed from solution by precipitation with sulfate ions. Suppose that a solution contains lead Il nitrate. Write complete ionic and net ionic equations to show the reaction of aqueous lead Il nitrate with aqueous potassium sulfate to form solid lead Il sulfate and aqueous potassium nitrate.

Write balanced molecular and net ionic equations for the reaction between nitric acid and calcium hydroxide. G Precipitation Reactions G Complete and balance each equation. Complete and balance each equation. Write a molecular equation for download precipitation reaction that occurs if any when each pair of aqueous solutions is mixed. Write balanced complete ionic and net ionic equations for each reaction: a.

Suppose that a solution contains aqueous Hg2 N03 z. Write complete ionic and net ionic equations to CD Complete and balance each acid-base equation : a. Complete and balance each acid-base equation: a. Complete and balance each gas-evolution equation: a. H 2S Assign oxidation states to each atom in molecular element, ion, or compound: a.

CuC1 2 d. CH4 f. Cr20 iWhat is the oxidation state of Cr in each compound? CrO b. Cr03 c. Cr20 3 What is the oxidation state of Cl in each ion? Cl03f Determine whether each reaction is a redox reaction. For each redox reaction, identify the oxidizing agent and free reducing agent. Determine whether each reaction is a redox reaction. Exercises 0 Complete and balance each combustion reaction equation: a. Complete and balance each combustion reaction equation: a.

Calculate how many moles chemistry N02 form when each quantity of reactant completely reacts: a. Balance each redox reaction occurring in acidic aqueous solution. For each of the reactions, calculate the mass in grams of the product chemistry when Assume that there is more than enough of the other reactant. Consider the reaction: fl c. For each precipitation reaction, calculate how many grams of the first reactant are necessary to completely react with For the reaction, compute the theoretical yield of product in moles for each initial amount of reactants.

Once the reaction has occurred as completely as possible, what amount in moles of the excess reactant is left? For the reaction, compute the theoretical yield of product in grams for each initial amount of reactants. For the reaction, compute the theoretical yield of the product in grams for each initial amount of reactants. How many C02 3rd would be formed from the reaction mixture that produces the greatest amount of products? For the reaction, find the limiting reactant for each initial amount of reactants.

How many molecules of Cl2 would be formed from the reaction mixture that produces the greatest amount of products? Once the reaction has occurred as completely as possible, what mass in grams of the excess reactant is left? Calculate the molarity of each solution: a. Elemental phosphorus reacts with chlorine gas according to the equation: A approach mixture initially contains What volume of a 0.

What mass of NaN0 3 in grams is needed? The precipitate is filtered and dried and found to have a mass of Determine the limiting reactant, theoretical yield of PbCl2and percent yield for the reaction. Magnesium oxide can be made by heating magnesium metal in the presence of oxygen. Determine the limiting reactant, theoretical yield, and percent yield for the reaction. How many moles of KCl are contained in each solution? A chemist wants to make 5. What mass of CaCl2 in grams should the chemist use?

GI To what volume should you free To what volume should you dilute 25 mL of a Determine the limiting reactant, theoretical yield of urea, and percent yield for the reaction. Many compu ter chips are manufactured from silicon, which occurs in nature as 3rd When Si02 pdf heated to melting, it reacts with solid carbon to form liquid silicon and carbon monoxide gas.

In an industrial preparation of silicon, G What is the minimum amount of 6. What is the molarity of ZnCl 2 that forms when Assume a final volume of download. Find the percent by mass of sodium chloride in a l. The edition of the solution is l. People often use sodium bicarbonate as an antacid to neutralize excess hydrochloric acid in an upset stomach. What mass of hydrochloric acid in grams pdf 2.

Hint: Begin by writing a balanced equation for Chapter 4 Ch emical Reac t ion s and Sto ichiometry the reaction between aqueous sodium bicarbonate and aq ueous hydrochloric acid. Toilet bowl cleaners often contain hydrochloric acid, which dissolves the calcium carbonate deposits that accumulate within a toilet bowl. Edition mass of calcium carbonate in grams can 3. Hint: Begin by writing a balanced equation for the reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate.

A hydrochloric acid solution will neutralize a sodium hydroxide solution. Begin by writing a balanced chemical eq uation molecular the neutralization reaction. G The combustion of gasoline produces carbon dioxide and water. Assume gasoline to be pure octane C 8H 18 and calculate the mass in kilograms of carbo n dioxide that is added to the atmosphere per 1. Hint: Begin by writing a balanced equation for the combustio n reaction. Many home barbeques are fuelled with propane gas C 3H8. What mass of carbon dioxide in kilograms is approach upon the complete combustion of Assume that the density of the liquid propane in the tank is 0.

Hint: Begin by writing a balanced equation for the combustion reaction. Once the reaction is complete, the student collects 1. Determine the limiting reactant, theoretical yield of aspirin, and percent yield for the reaction.

Online Library Chemistry A Molecular Approach 3rd Edition Onlinerequire more become old to spend to go to the book start as capably as search for them. In some cases, you likewise complete not discover the declaration chemistry a molecular approach 3rd edition online that you are looking for. It will categorically squander the time. Free download Principles of Chemistry: A Molecular Approach (3rd edition) written by Nivaldo J. Tro in pdf published in As per the author; the third edition has been extensively revised and. Chemistry a Molecular Approach 3rd Edition PDF Free Download Monday, March 9, Format: PDF. File Size: mb. Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, Third Edition is an innovative, pedagogically driven text that explains challenging concepts in a student-oriented manner. Nivaldo Tro creates a rigorous and accessible treatment of general Estimated Reading Time: 1 min.

The combustion of liquid ethanol C2H moleculaf produces carbon dioxide and water. After 4. Determine the limiting reactant, theoretical yield of H 20and percent yield for the reaction. Hint: W rite a balanced equation for the combustio n of ethanol. The hydrogen within the balloon reacts explosively with oxygen in the chemiatry to form water. If the balloon is filled with a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, the explosion xownload even lo uder than if the balloon is filled only with hydrogen-the intensity of the explosion depends on the relative amounts of oxygen and hydrogen within the balloon.

Look at the 3rd views representing different amounts of hyd rogen and oxygen in four different ball oons. Based on the balanced chemical equation, which balloon will pdf the lo udest explosio n? Predict the products and write a balanced molecular equation for each reaction. One way to soften water is to add phosphates. The phosphate ion forms insoluble precipitates with calcium and magnesium ions, removing them from solution.

Suppose that a solution is 0. What mass of sodium phosphate would have downloaf be added to 1. Assume complete reaction. An acid solution is 0. The addition of 1. The total mass of the precipitate is G The nitrogen in sodium nitrate and in ammonium sulfate is available to plants as fertilizer. Which is the more economical source of nitrogen, a fertilizer containing Find the volume of 0. Identify the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent in this reaction. Find the apporach of the gold salt that forms when a We prepare a solution by mixing 0.

When molecular add sodium chloride to the solution, no precipitate forms. When you add sodium sulfate to downooad solution, a white precipitate forms. You filter off the precipitate and add sodium carbonate to the remaining solution, producing another precipitate. Which ions were present in the original solution? Write net ionic equations for the formation of each of the precipitates observed. When potassium chloride is added to the solution, a precipitate pdf. The precipitate is fi ltered off, and potassium sulfate is added to the remaining solution, producing no precipitate.

When potassium carbonate is added to the remaining solution, a precipitate forms. An important reaction that takes place in a blast furnace during the production of iron is the formation of iron metal and COz from Fez03 and CO. Find the mass of Fez03 required to form kg of iron. Find the amount of COz that forms in this process. What maximum mass of carbon dioxide is produced by the complete combustion of Titanium occurs in the magnetic mineral ilmenite FeTi03which is often fou nd mixed with sand.

The ilmenite can be separated from the sand with magnets. Find the mass of PH3 that forms from the reaction of 1. If the second reaction is carried out with an It is burned in chemistru Oz to form a mixture of water and carbon dioxide that contains 1. Find the mass of CzHz in the original mixture. A mixture of Find the mass of PC1 3 formed. The addition of0. Find the mass of Agl in the precipitate. Lakes that have been acidified by acid rain HN0 3 and HzS04 can be neutralized by a process called liming, in which limestone CaC0 3 is added to the approach water.

What mass of limestone in kg would completely neutralize a What minimum edition of succimer in milligrams is needed to bind all of the lead in a patient's bloodstream? Suppose you work for a company interested in producing a self-rescue breathing apparatus based on the above reaction that would allow the user to survive for 10 minutes in an emergency situation. What are the important chemical considerations in designing fre a unit? Estimate how much KOz would be required for the apparatus.

Find any necessary additional information-such as human breathing rates-from appropriate sources. We learned in Section 4. Suppose that a particular detergent mixture is designed rree soften hard water that is 3. If the detergent requires using 0. Metallic aluminum reacts with MnOz at elevated temperatures to form manganese metal and aluminum oxide. A mixture of the two reactants is Find the theoretical yield in grams of manganese from the reaction of g of this mixture.

Lead poisoning is a serious condition resulting from the ingestion of lead in food, water, or other environmental sources. It affects the central nervous system, leading to a variety of symptoms such as distractibility, lethargy, and loss of motor coordination. Lead free is treated with chelating agents, substances that bind to metal ions, allowing it to be eliminated in the urine. A modem chelating agent used for this purpose is succimer C4H6 0 4 3rd. Suppose you are trying to 5 9 forms boric acid, H 3B Fusion of boric acid with sodium oxide forms a borate salt, NazB4 0 7.

Without writing complete edition, find the mass in grams of B5H9 required to form approach of the borate salt by this reaction sequence. A mixture of carbon and sulfur has a mass of 9. Complete combustion with excess Oz gives Find the mass of sulfur in the original mixture. Consider the reaction: 0 2 g - 2 K 20 s The molar mass of K is Without doing any calculations, determine which set of amounts best represents the mixture after the reactants have reacted as completely as possible.

Explain your reasoning. G The circle below represents 1. Fortunately, we live at the bottom of a vast ocean of air, held to Earth by gravity. We inhale a lungful of this air every few seconds, keep some of the molecules for our own needs, add some molecules apprpach bodies no longer have a use for, and exhale the mixture back into the surrounding air.

The air around us is matter in the gaseous state. What are the fundamental properties of these gases? What laws describe their behaviour? What theory explains these properties and laws? The scientific method proceeds in this way-from observations to laws to theories-exactly the chemisyry we will proceed in this chapter. The gaseous state is the simplest and best-understood state of matter.

In this chapter, we examine that state. The total weight of chemstry air is about 25 kilograms. How do you do it? The simple answer is pressure. You rely on your body's ability to create pressure differences to move air into and out of your lungs. Pressure is the force exerted per approacb area by gas molecules as they strike the surfaces around 5. Just as a chemistry exerts a force when it bounces against a wall, a gaseous atom or molecule exerts a force when it collides with a surface.

The sum of all these molecular collisions is pressure-a constant force on the surfaces exposed to any gas. The molecular pressure exerted by a gas depends on several factors, including the concentration of gas molecules in the sample-the higher the concentration, the greater the pressure. When you inhale, the muscles that surround your chest cavity expand the volume of your lungs.

The expanded volume results in a lower concentration download gas molecules the number of molecules does not change, but since the volume increases, the concentration goes down. This in tum results in fewer molecular collisions, which results in lower pressure. The external pressure the pressure outside of your lungs remains relatively constant and is now higher than the pressure within your lungs.

As a result, gaseous molecules chemlstry into your lungs, from the region of higher pressure to the region of lower pressure. When download exhale, the process is reversed. The chest cavity muscles relax, which decreases the lung volume, increasing the pressure within the lungs and forcing air back out. In this way, within the course of a normal human lifetime, you will take about half a billion breaths and move about million litres of air through your lungs.

With each breath, you create pressure differences that allow you to obtain the oxygen that you need to live. As we just discussed, air contains gaseous atoms and molecules in constant motion. The particles collide with each other and with the surfaces around them. Each collision exerts only a small force, but when the forces of the many particles are summed, they quickly add up. The result of the constant collisions between the atoms or molecules in a gas and the surfaces around them is pressure.

Because of pressure, we can drink from straws, inflate basketballs, and move air into and out of our lungs. Variation in pressure in Earth's atmosphere creates wind, and changes in pressure help us to predict weather. Pressure is all around us and even inside of us. A high density of gas particles results in high pressure. 3rf H's in this map indicate regions of high pressure, usually associated with clear weather.

The L's indicate regions of low pressure, usually associated with unstable weather. The map shows a typhoon off the northeast coast of Japan. The isobars, or lines of constant pressure, are labelled in hectopascals Pa. The pressure of a gas sample depends on several factors, including the number of gas particles in chemistry given volume-the fewer the gas particles, the lower the pressure Figure 5.

Pressure decreases with increasing altitude because there are fewer molecules per unit 5. What mass of hydrogen gas was collected? A heliox deep-sea diving mixture contains 2. What is the partial pressure of oxygen when this mixture is delivered at a total pressure of 8. What mass of H2 0 is required to form 1. How many litres of CO gas, measured under the same conditions, are required? G Automobile air bags inflate following a serious impact. The free triggers the chemical reaction: If an automobile air bag has dowbload volume of Assume STP conditions.

Assume that the hydrogen gas is collected at a pressure of 1. Hydrogen gas a potential fdition fuel can be formed by the reaction of methane with water according to the equation: Consider a 1. Do the atoms in the helium sample have the same average kinetic energy as the atoms in the argon sample? Do the atoms in the helium sample have the same average velocity as the atoms in the argon sample? Do the argon atoms, because they are more massive, exert a greater pressure on the walls of moldcular container?

W hich gas sample would have the faster rate of effusion? A flask at room temperature contains exactly equal amounts in moles of nitrogen and xenon. Edition of the two gases exerts the greater partial pressure? The molecules or atoms of which gas have the greater average velocity? The download of which gas have the greater average kinetic energy? If a small hole were opened in the flask, which gas would effuse more quickly? Rank these three halogens with respect to their rates of effusion.

Which gas has the greatest velocity? The greatest ki netic energy? The greatest effusion rate? Calculate the ratio of effusion rates for UF6 and UF6. The atomic mass of Download is Calculate the ratio of effusion rates for Ar and Kr. Q A sample of neon effuses from a container in 76 seconds. The same amount of an unknown noble gas requires seconds. Identify the gas. A sample of N20 effuses from a container in 42 seconds. How long would it take the same amount of gaseous I2 to effuse from the same container under identical conditions?

Exercises CD The graph shows the distribution of molecular velocities for two different molecules A and B at the same temperature. Which molecule has the higher molar mass? Which molecule would have the higher rate of effusion? The following is a plot of the distribution of edition speeds for N2 at K. Sketch the distribution of molecular speeds for: a. He at K The graph shows the distribution of molecular velocities for the same molecule at two different temperatures T1 and T2.

Which temperature is greater? Which postulate of the kinetic molecular theory breaks down under conditions of low temperature? G Use the van der Waals equation and the ideal gas equation to 0 G Molecular velocity m s- 1 Oxygen 02 and chlorine Cl2 have molecular masses of In one hour, 0. How much oxygen effuses through the same hole in the same amount of time? Explain why the two values are different. Hint: One way to solve the van der Waals equation for Vis to use successive approximations.

Use the ideal gas law to get a preliminary estimate 3rd V. Use the van der Waals equation and the ideal gas equation to calculate the pressure exerted by I. OOO mol of Cl2 in a volume of 5. Cumulative Problems G Modem American pennies are composed of zinc coated with 3rd. A student determines the mass of a penny to be molecular. The collected gas occupies a volume of0. Assuming that all the Zn in the penny dissolves, calculate the percent zinc by chemistry in the penny.

What is the percent chlorine by mass in the unknown chlorofluorocarbon? Q The mass of an evacuated mL flask is Calculate the molar mass of the unknown gas. A mL flask is evacuated and found to have a mass of Was the helium gas pure? What is the molecular formula of the compound? A gaseous hydrogen and carbon-containing compound is decomposed and found to contain The mass of mL of the gas, measured at STP, was 0.

Consider the reaction: If this reaction produces Write an equation for the gas-evolution reaction and determine how much potassium sulfide in grams reacted. The emission of N02 by fossil fuel combustion can be prevented by injecting gaseous urea into the combustion mixture. W hat total mass of urea is necessary to approach completely with the NO formed during 8.

If Ammonium nitrate decomposes explosively upon heating according to the balanced equation: If Buzz Lightyear has found his spaceship! However, it was out of fuel. Buzz has What is the maximum mass of hydrazine Buzz can make? G Olympic cyclists fill their tires with helium to make them lighter. Calculate approach mass of air in an air-filled tire and the mass of helium in a helium-filled tire.

Chemistry is the mass difference between the two? Also assume an average molar pdf for air of In a common classroom demonstration, a balloon is filled with air and submerged in liquid nitrogen. The balloon contracts as the gases within the balloon cool. Suppose the balloon initially contains 2. Calculate the expected volume of the balloon upon cooling to -1 When the demonstration is carried out, the actual volume of the balloon decreases to 0.

How does the observed volume of the balloon compare to free calculated value? Can you explain the difference? GD An ordinary gasoline can measuring Assuming that virtually all of the air can be removed from inside the can, and that atmospheric pressure is 1. Do you think that the can could withstand the force? The container initially contains only air at a free of 1. Pdf the liquid nitrogen completely vaporizes, what is the total force in N on the interior of the container at K?

QD A How many 3. Assume an atmospheric pressure of 1. What should be the flow rate of am monia delivered at 1. An The pressure in the container following evaporation is Torr. What is the volume of the container? A scuba diver's expiration of air creates a spherical bubble with a radius of 2. What is the radius of the bubble when it reaches the surface of the water?

Assume that the atmospheric pressure is 1. GI A particular balloon can be stretched to a maximum surface area of cm 2. The balloon is fi lled with mklecular.

The balloon is then allowed to rise in the atmosphere. Chemsitry the atmospheric temperature is K, at what pressure will the balloon burst? Assume the balloon to be in the shape of a sphere. O mole ratio mixture of carbon monoxide and oxygen gas respectively over the catalyst in a 2.

When the reaction is complete, the pressure in the flask has dropped to Torr. What percentage of the carbon monoxide was converted to carbon dioxide? A quantity of N2 occupies a volume of 1. O bar. The gas expands to a volume of 3. Find the density of the gas at these new conditions. AmixtureofCO g and0 2 g in a l. OLcontainerat 1. After some time, the total pressure falls to l. Find the mass in grams of C02 that forms.

The radius of a xenon atom is 1. A mL flask is filled with Xe at a pressure of 1. Calculate the fraction of the volume that is occupied by Xe atoms. Hint: The atoms are spheres.

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A natural gas storage tank is a cylinder with a movable top whose volume can change only as its height changes. Its radius remains fixed. The height of the cylinder is The next day, the height of the cylinder increases to Find the temperature on the second day, assuming that the pressure and amount of gas in the storage tank have not changed.

A mixture of 8.

Find the partial pressure of CH4. A steel container of volume 0. What mass of helium can be stored in this container at K? Binary eidtion of alkali metals and hydrogen react with water to liberate H2 g. The H molecularr from the reaction of a sample of f» molecular 9 C NaH with an excess of water fills a volume of 0. Determine the mass of H 2 liberated and the mass of Frer that reacted. In a given diffusion apparatus, In the same apparatus and under the same conditions, The unknown gas is a hydrocarbon.

Find its molecular formula. A sample of N20 3 g has a pressure of 0. The temperature in K is then doubled and the N20 3 undergoes complete decomposition to N02 g and NO g. Find the total pressure of the mixture of gases assuming constant volume and no additional temperature change. When 0. Find the mass of the argon in the bulb. A gas mixture composed of helium and argon has a density of 0.

What is the composition of the mixture by volume? A gas mixture contains What is the partial pressure of krypton in the mixture if the total pressure is mbar? Lightn ing McQueen's tires have a maximum rating of kPa. When a tire is cold Whi le racing on a hot day, the tire warms to Does the pressure in the tire exceed the maximum rating? A aapproach hydrocarbon containing chfmistry C and H is analyzed by combustion analysis.

O bar, K, and l. What is download empirical formula of the compound? To obtain the actual molecular formula, the liquid was analyzed by the Dumas method to determine the molar mass. Challenge Problems A I 0 L container is filled with chemistry. The pressure is found to be 3. Find the partial pressure rdition the H g that forms from H2 at this temperature.

Assume two significant figures for the temperature. The total pressure is 0. After decomposition is complete, the total pressure at K is found to be 4. Find the percent of N2H 4 g in the original mixture. A quantity of CO gas occupies a volume of 0. O atm ediiton Free. The pressure of the gas is lowered and its temperature is raised until its volume is l. Approach the density of the CO under the new conditions. G When C02 g is put in a sealed container at Kand a pressure of Some of the C02 decomposes to CO and 0 2.

Calculate the mole percent of C02 that decomposes. The world burns approximately 9. Use the combustion of octane as the representative x and determine pdf mass of carbon dioxide the most significant greenhouse gas formed 3rd year. Now you can download songs, movies, episodes, trailers, clips or any Dailymotion video without visitng the Dailymotion site with hassle free controls and beautiful responsive UI. Currently It supports all formats of video aoproach.

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